We acknowledge that we live and work on unceded Indigenous territories and we thank the Musqueam, Squamish and Tsleil-Waututh Nations for their hospitality.

Single Issue

BC Studies no. 194 Summer 2017

Features SOUNDWORK by Hildegard Westerkamp; Susan Lambert’s REFLECTION on the BCTF’s struggle against the BC Liberal government; A REVIEW ESSAY by Wendy Wickwire; ARTICLES by Nicolas Graham, George Abbott, Roger Sugden and Keith Sugden, Margaret Scaia, and J.I. Little; NEW MEDIA REVIEWS; A report on Indigenous Communities and Industrial Camps for THIS SPACE HERE and a tribute to cover artist Beau Dick by Francis Dick (THE FRONT).

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The Front

The Front

This Space Here

This Space Here

Indigenous Communities and Industrial Camps: Promoting Healthy Communities in Settings of Industrial Change  

By The Firelight Group with Lake Babine Nation and Nak'azdli Whut'en



Review Essays

review essay

The Quest for the “Real” Franz Boas  

By Wendy Wickwire

Exhibition, Film, and New Media Reviews

Exhibition, Film, and New Media Review

Pop Culture Confronts British Columbia’s Colonial History

Grand Theft Terra Firma: A Game of Imperial Stickup, Abbotsford, British Columbia, the Reach Gallery Museum, 17 January – 7 May 2017. The exhibition is augmented by several public events, including a live theatrical performance...

By Erika Balcombe

Exhibition, Film, and New Media Review

Sq’éwlets: A Stó:lo-Coast Salish Community in the Fraser River Valley Virtual Museum

Sq’éwlets: A Stó:lō -Coast Salish Community in the Fraser River Valley (Stó:lō Research and Resource Management Centre and Stó:lō Nation, 2016) is a virtual museum in the form of a website that reflects a collaborative...

By Dara Kelly

Terms | Sto:lo

Book Reviews

Book Review

Arctic Ambitions: Captain Cook and the Northwest Passage

James Cook was the greatest navigator of his, and perhaps any, age. He did more than any other individual to make the Pacific, which covers one third of the earth’s surface, known to Europe. Through...

By Robin Fisher

Book Review

Pemmican Empire: Food, Trade, and the Last Bison Hunts in the North American Plains, 1780-1882

Let us get the quibbling out of the way first, lest it leave a bad taste in our mouths at the end. Cambridge University Press appears to have put little effort into indexing this volume,...

By Scott P. Stephen

Book Review

The Fur Trade Gamble: North West Company on the Pacific Slope, 1800-1820

This is not the first nor will be it the last scholarly or non-scholarly work on the North West Company’s ill-fated “Columbia adventure,” an enterprise in frustration for the investors and participants, both by land...

By Barry Gough

Book Review

The Klondike Gold Rush Steamers: A History of Yukon River Steam Navigation.

Paddle-driven, stern-wheeled river steamboats evolved on the Ohio River in the 1830s into the form they would keep for the next 100 years, enabling them to serve everywhere in the vast Mississippi River basin and...

By Robert G. McCandless

Book Review

Great Fortune Dream: The Struggles and Triumphs of Chinese Settlers in Canada, 1858-1966

David Chuenyan Lai and Ding Guo’s Great Fortune Dream is a comprehensive history of the Chinese in Canada, from early settlement to the 1960s. While much has been written on the subject, there have been...

By LiLynn Wan

Book Review

Coming Home in Gold Brocade: Chinese in Early Northwest America

In Coming Home in Gold Brocade, Bennet Benson and Chuimei Ho, an anthropologist and an archaeologist/historian respectively, present results of their ambitious study of the Chinese in Northwest America — an area including Washington, Oregon,...

By Patricia Roy

Book Review

Polarity, Patriotism and Dissent in Great War Canada, 1914-1919

Premised on his insight that “If there is an arithmetic to the management of dissent, there is also a mathematics” (6), Brock Millman’s study of the polarization of Canadian society into supporters and opponents of...

By James Wood

Book Review

Through an Unknown Country: The Jarvis-Hanington Winter Expedition through the Northern Rockies, 1874-1875

This miscellany of writings, chiefly by two civil engineers who for parts of their careers  toiled as railway surveyors, aims to carve out a prominent place for them in the history of Canada. Ed Jarvis...

By I.S. MacLaren

Book Review

Vistas: Artists on the Canadian Pacific Railway

Vistas, Artists on the Canadian Pacific Railway is about the ways in which painters and photographs met the challenge of capturing the mountain landscape west of Calgary during the late nineteenth century. This book is...

By Maria Tippett

Book Review

Art Inspired by the Canadian Rockies, Purcell Mountains and Selkirk Mountains, 1809-2012

  As Nancy Townshend writes in the preface of Art Inspired by the Canadian Rockies, Purcell Mountains and Selkirk Mountains, 1809-2012: “At one time, the Canadian Rockies, Purcell Mountains, and Selkirk Mountains existed as a...

By Maria Tippett

Book Review

What We Learned: Two Generations Reflect on Tsimshian Education and the Day Schools.

The impetus for What We Learned, a collaborative book written by Helen Raptis and twelve members of the Tsimshian Nation, was Raptis’s archival discovery of a 1947 class list from the Port Essington Indian Day...

By Sean Carleton

Book Review

Solitudes of the Workplace: Women in Universities

The essays in Solitudes of the Workplace examine the university as a workplace. The authors use the concept of solitude to examine women’s various experiences as workers in universities. A key premise of the book...

By Nancy Janovicek

Book Review

Documenting First Wave Feminisms: Volume I: Transnational Collaborations and Crosscurrents

. Historians of first-wave feminism: I am sorry to say that no matter how many more authors we nudge into the canon, we cannot escape the Eurocentric origins of the feminist pioneers. Documenting First Wave...

By Melanie Buddle

Book Review

Rebel Life: The Life and Times of Robert Gosden

. It’s a minor miracle that labour historian Mark Leier’s revised edition of his original 1999 book on labour rebel Robert Gosden even made it into print. A fire bombing at Vancouver’s New Star Books...

By Ron Verzuh

Book Review


I haven’t read a comic book since childhood, save for the Classics Comic version of “Romeo and Juliet,” which seemed a short-cut to studying that play in high school. Co-incidentally, Kluckner’s book, more properly described...

By Patricia Roy

Book Review

Human Rights in Canada: A History

Human Rights in Canada: A History is a comprehensive survey of the checkered human rights pattern in this country. Dominique Clément writes of a country that in its infancy and youth had a minimal respect...

By Larry Hannant

Book Review

Empowering Electricity: Co-operatives, Sustainability, and Power Sector Reform in Canada

Empowering Electricity is a detailed examination of the political and social economy of electricity co-operatives and power sector reform in Canada. The co-operative movement is commonly, and rightfully, viewed as a model of grassroots organization...

By Nichole Dusyk

Book Review

Resource Communities in a Globalizing Region: Development, Agency, and Contestation in Northern British Columbia

From the Northern Gateway Pipeline Inquiry, to the Tsilhqot’in land claim decision, to the proposed Site C dam, northern British Columbia has made regular front page news appearances in recent years. In Resource Communities in...

By Hereward Longley

Book Review

Raincoast Chronicles 22 – Saving Salmon, Sailors and Souls

The nine non-fiction stories told in Raincoast Chronicles 22 – Saving Salmon, Sailors and Souls share a common theme of “service on the BC coast.” Apart from that, they are a very mixed bag. They...

By Howard Stewart

Book Review

The Royal Fjord: Memories of Jervis Inlet

In The Royal Fjord, Ray Phillips, a long-time resident of the Sunshine Coast, finishes a job his late father started. It is, says Phillips, a book of “many anecdotes [and other stories that] tell some...

By Howard Stewart

Book Review

Tide Changes: A True West Coast Fishing Adventure

It is common knowledge that the salmon fisheries of BC are a fraction of what they used to be, and the scientific and sociological literature is full of theories about how this happened. Too much...

By Colin Levings

Book Review

The Sea Wolves: Living Wild in the Great Bear Rainforest

. A pitted debate about the value of wolves emerged in 2015 and 2016, centring on the wolf cull established by British Columbia’s Ministry of the Environment. The plan to save declining stocks of caribou...

By Stephanie Rutherford

Book Review

One More Time! The Dal Richards Story

  Local icon Dal Richards passed away on New Year’s Eve 2015. In the tributes that followed and at his memorial, many noted the auspiciousness of his passing. For years, his New Year’s Eve concerts...

By Vanessa Colantonio

Book Review

Playing for Change: The Continuing Struggle for Sport and Recreation

Rarely does a book cover depict a Canadian athlete with claims to a major role in academic life and advocacy politics, but this is no ordinary cover. The front of Playing for Change depicts young Bruce Kidd,...

By PearlAnn Reichwein

Book Review

How Canadians Communicate V: Sports

The strength of How Canadians Communicate V: Sports is in its storytelling. Exploring Canadian engagement through sports and the media, the authors demonstrate that a powerful story attracts both spectators and readers. Written from multiple...

By Jennifer Anderson



George Abbott is a doctoral candidate in Political Science at the University of Victoria. He has previously published in BC Studies on “Duff Pattullo and the Coalition Controversy of 1941” (Summer 1994), “Pattullo, the Press, and the Dominion-Provincial Conference of 1941” (Autumn 1996), and more recently on the introduction of the Harmonized Sales Tax in British Columbia and Ontario (Summer 2015). He was a provincial cabinet minister from 2001 to 2012 including Community, Aboriginal and Women’s Services (2001-05) and Aboriginal Relations and Reconciliation (2009-10).

Erika Balcombe is a faculty member at the Wilson School of Design at Kwantlen Polytechnic University and a current graduate student at UBC (anthropology). Her research aims to bridge these disciplines, anthropology and design, by considering the aesthetic experience of built spaces, namely the staged atmospheres of museum and art exhibitions. Her most recent project was the online exhibit On These Shores (2016), developed for the Jewish Museum and Archives of BC (JMABC). The exhibit traces the migration of settler Jews to Victoria, BC in the 1800s using materials from the JMABC’s archival records.

Francis Dick is a contemporary aboriginal artist and a member of the Kwakwaka’wakw Nation. She began her career as a social worker after receiving her degree from the University of Victoria, but quickly realized that her true calling in life was to honour her natural artistic talents. Francis is an integral member of the native art community, and is frequently requested to speak for various community organizations, women’s groups and university classes. Francis’s native art has been exhibited in various art galleries and museums, including a permanent exhibit at the Ethnological Museum in Berlin. Her aboriginal paintings, as well as articles and interviews, have been published in books, calendars and magazines all over North America, Asia and Europe.

Ginger Gibson is a Director of the Firelight Group. She has negotiated many
Impact and Benefit Agreements (IBAs), and is constantly involved in the implementation challenges that arise for nations, including many IBAs in the NWT. Her work in socio-economic research and gender impact assessment is published. She is the co-author of the IBA Com- munity Toolkit for Negotiation of Impact and Benefit Agreements. As a Trudeau Scholar, she completed a PhD in Mining Engineering at the University of British Columbia and is now an Adjunct Professor there.
Nicolas Graham is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Sociology at the University of Victoria. His previous work in the areas of critical political economy and political ecology has appeared in Antipode and Capitalism
Nature Socialism. He is currently conducting research on the relationship between fossil fuels and capitalist development and on the power of Canada’s carbon extractive industry.

Dara Kelly is a Post-Doctoral Research Fellow at the Peter B. Gustavson School of Business, University of Victoria. Dara’s doctoral research entitled, “‘Feed the people and you will never go hungry’: Illuminating Coast Salish Economy of Affection” explores Coast Salish philosophy of freedom, unfreedom, wealth and reciprocity and how that shapes Coast Salish philosophy of economy. Dara will graduate with a Doctor of Philosophy in Commerce in September 2017, and completed a Master of Commerce in the Department of Management at the University of Auckland Business School in Aotearoa-New Zealand. She completed a Bachelor of Arts in First Nations Studies at the University of British Columbia.

Susan Lambert graduated from Simon Fraser’s teacher training program in the spring of 1973. After eleven years and the birth of her two sons, she moved to Vancouver in 1984 and started a four-year term position with the British Columbia Teachers’ Federation. In 1989 she became a teacher-librarian in the Burnaby School District. In 2002 she was elected as vice-president of the Burnaby Teachers’ Association, a full- time union position. From there she was elected second vice-president of the British Columbia Teachers’ Federation in 2004 and eventually served as president from 2010 to 2013. Susan is now fully retired.

Jack Little is a Professor Emeritus in the Simon Fraser University History Department. Forthcoming with University of Toronto Press is his Fashioning the Canadian Landscape: Essays on Travel Writing, Tourism, and National Identity in the Pre-automobile Era.

Margaret Scaia is an Assistant Professor (LT) at the University of Victoria in the School of Nursing. She obtained an interdisciplinary PhD in History, Women’s Studies and Nursing in 2013. Dr. Scaia teaches in graduate and undergraduate programs with a focus on the social and political location of nursing in western Canada in the mid-twentieth century.

Keith Sugden (PhD History, MSc Applied Chemistry) is an Affiliated Researcher at the Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, University of Cambridge, England. After a career in research and development in a worldwide consumer goods company, he has changed tack to study economic history, particularly as it relates to occupations. He is interested in what people did, why they did it, and what were the outcomes. His main concerns are twofold: to throw light on the English textile industry during the Industrial Revolution, circa 1700-1851, and to understand the economic development of the Okanagan, British Columbia, 1881-present day.

Roger Sugden (BA Law, Sheffield University; MA and PhD Eco- nomics, Warwick University) is Professor and Dean at UBC’s Faculty of Management, and advisor on regional economic development to the Principal of UBC’s Okanagan campus. He has previously worked at the universities of Birmingham, Edinburgh and Stirling, and the Wissen- schaftszentrum, Berlin, and has been Visiting Professor at the Università di Ferrara. His research is on economic organization, the interests of publics and regional socio-economic development. He is currently working on the recent history of occupational structure and economic strategy in non-metropolitan regions, and on organizing knowledge to support BC’s wine industry.

Hildegard Westerkamp has lectured on topics of listening, en- vironmental sound and acoustic ecology and has conducted soundscape workshops internationally. Her compositional work focuses on the sounds of the environment and most importantly, draws attention to the act of listening itself. Her written work has been published in journals and books such as Oganized Sound, Radio Rethink, Kunstforum, Musicworks, MusikTexte, Sounding Art, Sound by Artists, The Book of Music and Nature, and Utopia of Sound. A founding member of the World Forum for Acoustic Ecology and long-time co-editor of its journal Soundscape, Westerkamp was a researcher for R. Murray Schafer’s World Soundscape Project in the seventies, and has taught acoustic communication at Simon Fraser University with colleague Barry Truax.

Wendy Wickwire is an emeritus professor in the Department of History, University of Victoria.